The amniotic membrane or amnio is the internal membrane of the embryonic and fetal sac. It is used in ophthalmology to reconstruct and to treat lesions on the surface of the eye, whether that be the cornea or the conjunctiva.

Applying amniotic membrane to a lesion on the eye’s surface can reduce the severity of the lesion and even prevent there having to be a corneal transplant. In these cases, an amniotic membrane transplant can improve the patient’s quality of life to a great degree.

Indications for using amniotic membrane on the eye’s surface.

1. Persistent corneal ulcers

Post-infectious :Herpes-Zoster virus, bacterial.
Post-traumatic : thermal and chemical burns, especially by alkalines.
Neurotrophic ulcers
Degenerative : dystrophies, recurrent erosions
Secondary : bullous keratopathy

2. Conjunctival affectation

Mucosal synechiae-forming diseases : pemphigoid, Stevens- Johnson
Recurring Pterygium

3.Other indications

Necrotizing limbitis-escleritis
Defects of filtering blebs from glaucoma surgery
Recovering glaucomatous valvular
Xerosis : Primary and secondary Sjogren
Corneal limbal insufficiency
Prevention of post-surgical opacity after photo keratotomy (PRK, PTK, in experimentation phase)